We Want To Build an Advanced Fabrication Training Facility for MCPS

Over the past decade MCPS like other school districts across the US has been dismantling shop rooms as schools focus more on testing and college prep.  However, the need to for experienced advanced fabricators is growing.  Communities across the US are starting to feel the impact of this skills gap and are working with private industry to create a pipeline of people with the knowledge they need to make things.  Just today, GE purchased two of the world’s leading metal additive manufacturing companies and announced thei need to grow domestic manufacturing capacity.   (both of these companies were in Europe)  It is for this reason the Walt Whitman Robotics team plans to upgrade the Walt Whitman High School  shop room with new equipment. and start and advanced fabrication program.  The goal will be to teach 50+ kids a year how to do CAD design,  CAM design, additive manufacturing, circuit board printing, advanced CNC manufacturing and how to use a variety of industrial lasers.  This will be open to students at every level and STEM sports teams across the county.

The program will do much more than showing kids how to use a vinyl cutter.  We want to teach students that their ideas can be transformed into marketable commodities. One example from similar program in California;

 “They designed really cool ornaments for the holidays and we sold more than a thousand dollars’ worth of stuff. We just put together a coaster set for a local microbrewery. We’ve got a tremendous community of artistic people and small businesses that I’m sure would be willing to do what the brewery did. The kids have to go to the business and make the pitch and figure out what the cost would be by doing an analysis of material and time and all the other costs. I’m talking with a finance teacher we have to set this up as a business class on student enterprise, with real outcomes.” http://time.com/3849501/why-schools-need-to-bring-back-shop-class/

We are going to be looking for community donated materials, equipment, cash, and expertise to get this program off the ground.  If you are interested in helping build the next generation, please reach out admin@team1389.com, we can use all the help we can get.

Robotics Day at the Kid Museum

Walt Whitman will join 3 other FRC teams from the area and help the local Kid’s Museum host their first Robotics Day. Stop by with your kids, your neighbors kids and your inner kid to check us out. We will have several team members on hand as well as our World Championship  Level robot Maelstrom available for you to drive.

Saturday, July 16

From the nuts & bolts of how robots move, to testing out competition robots…it’s everything robots at KID’s first ever Robotics Day!

Open Explore
Stop in throughout the day to experiment with gears, parts and pulleys; take part in “Imagining the Robots of the Future;” and learn about different machines and systems, like VEX, LittleBits, and Arduino.

Featured Workshops
LEGO WeDo: Move and manipulate objects with this robotics tool. Design your own interactive machine using gears, motors, motion sensors, and more. Ages 8+. $6 members; $7 nonmembers. 11:00 REGISTER

MakerWear: Customize clothing with lights and sounds that react to your movements, and be a part of the University of Maryland’s Human-Computer Interaction Lab MakerWear prototyping project. Ages 6+. $3 members; $4 nonmembers. 1:30 REGISTER

Demos
See amazing demos by local high school FRC robotics teams:

Team 1389 
Walt Whitman High School
Bethesda, MD

Team 449
Blair High School
Silver Spring, MD

Loads and Free Body Diagrams

Understanding what loads are and how they are transferred from each component of the robot down to the ground will go a long way to increasing your understanding of how to design structural and mechanical systems. Here is a quick primer on loads and visualizing them via free body diagrams.

 

Newton’s 1st Law

An object in motion stays in motion in a straight line, unless acted upon by unbalanced force. A push or pull will cause object to speed up, slow down, or change direction.

force 1

Basically, objects just keep on doing whatever they are doing unless they are acted upon by an unbalanced force.

  • Ketchup stays in the bottom (at rest) until you bang (outside force) on the end of the bottom.
  • A headrest in a car prevents whiplash injuries during a rear-end collision ( your head goes forward and then jerks backward).
  • Animation 1 – ladder truck
  • Animation 2 – no seatbelt

 

Load Types

 

Free-body Diagram: Single Body

Free-body diagrams are used to show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting on an object.

force 2

This diagram above shows four forces acting upon an object. There aren’t always four forces, For example, there could be one, two, or three forces. If a block is at rest on a table top. Here is the diagram of the forces acting on the block.

force 3

In this diagram above, there are normal and gravitational forces on the block. Below a block is free-falling in a vacuum. Neglecting air resistance, below is the free-body diagram showing the forces involved.

force 4

In this diagram above, gravity is the only force acting on the block. Below a block is free-falling from a tree to the ground at constant velocity. Considering air resistance, below is the free body diagram for this situation.

force 5

In this diagram above, gravity pulls down on the block while air resistance pushes up on the block as it falls through air. Below a rightward force is applied to a block in order to move it across a desk. Considering frictional forces and neglecting air resistance, below is the free-body diagram.

force 6

In this diagram above, the applied force arrow points to the right. Notice how friction force points in the opposite direction. Finally, there is still gravity and normal forces involved. Below a block is descending with a constant velocity. Considering air resistance, below is the free-body diagram.

force 7

In this diagram above, gravity pulls down on the block, while air resistance pushes up as the block falls. Below a block is dragged across loosely packed snow with a rightward acceleration. below is the free-body diagram.

force 8

The rightward force arrow points to the right. Friction slows the blocks progress and pulls in the opposite direction. Normal forces still apply as does gravitational force since we are on planet Earth. Below is a block moving upwards toward its peak after having been launched into the air. Neglecting air resistance, below is the free-body diagram.

force 9

In this diagram above, the force of gravity is the only force described. Below a block rolls down hill.

force 10

In this diagram above, the lock is coasting down the hill, there is still the dragging friction of the road (left pointing arrow) as well as gravity and normal forces. Now let’s take a look at what happens when unbalanced forces do not become completely balanced (or cancelled) by other individual forces. An unbalanced forces exists when the vertical and horizontal forces do not cancel each other out. Below, notice the upward force of 1200 Neutons (N) is more than gravity (800 N). The net force is 400 N up.

force 11

Below, notice that while the normal force and gravitation forces are balanced (each are 50 N) the force of friction results in unbalanced force on the horizontal axis. The net force is 20 N left.

force 12

Another way to look at balances and unbalanced forces.

force 13

Balanced

force 14

Unbalanced

force 15force 16

Free-body Diagram:2 dimension examples

FB 1 FB 2 FB 3 FB 4

 

Free-body Diagram:3 dimension examples

FB 5

 

 

 

Load Cases

A load case is a combination of different types of loads with safety factors applied to them. A structure is checked for strength and serviceability against all the load cases it is likely to experience during its lifetime.

Typical load cases for design for strength (ultimate load cases; ULS) are:

1.2 x Dead Load + 1.6 x Live Load
1.2 x Dead Load + 1.2 x Live Load + 1.2 x Wind Load

A typical load case for design for serviceability (characteristic load cases; SLS) is:

1.0 x Dead Load + 1.0 x Live Load

Different load cases would be used for different loading conditions. For example, in the case of design for fire a load case of 1.0 x Dead Load + 0.8 x Live Load may be used, as it is reasonable to assume everyone has left the building if there is a fire.

In multi-story buildings it is normal to reduce the total live load depending on the number of stories being supported, as the probability of maximum load being applied to all floors simultaneously is negligibly small.

It is not uncommon for large buildings to require hundreds of different load cases to be considered in the design.

 

Additional references

Equations of Motion

We are starting a collection of equations, white papers and calculators that team’s can use to build better systems and robots. Please feel free to recommend something we should add.

Forces

  • force force
  • mass mass
  • accelerationacceleration

 

Equations & Calculators

 

Additional Resources

Brain Storming

brain storm

What is Brain Storming?

  • Powerful tool for design teams
  • Used to generate ideas in a group
  • Can be used on any sub-problem
  • It is best after knowing the main design requirements

 

Ground Rules

  • Relax
  • Have fun
  • Support not criticize
  • No boundaries
  • Completely free your mind
  • No limits on the number of ideas
  • Fragmented ideas OK
  • Just keywords OK
  • No criticizing (during or after)
  • No evaluating or dismissing
  • No dismissing EVEN your own ideas
  • No “You must be joking” looks or comments
  • Explain quickly (few seconds)
  • No questions
  • Let ideas you don’t understand go
  • Speed is the key
  • Important is “Association” not “Viability
  • Avoid subtle evaluations
    • How is it going to do …
    • Isn’t this violating the rules
    • That is an excellent idea
    • How is this different than that idea
  • Select a moderator
  • No dominating
  • No interrupting
  • No passing
  • Short session (20 minutes)
  • Create ideas in silence
  • Multiple rounds

 

Phase I: Idea Purge Phase

  • The objective is declared.
  • Many ideas written rapidly on sheet of paper.
  • There is a relaxation break after two minutes.
  • The process continues for another minute.

 

Phase II: Idea Trigger Phase

  • Leader calls each member for their ideas.
  • Team members cross out shared ideas.
  • Each idea as read may trigger other ideas in other members who write them down quickly on a second page.
  • After the first round, the members repeat the reading process for the second sheet and more until no new ideas are triggered.

 

Phase III: Compilation

  • Members compile and classify ideas into a master list and distribute it.

 

Afterwards

  • Work alone to create more ideas.
  • Meet and selects promising ideas.
  • 3-5 promising ideas are developed in more detail listing pros and cons using a trade study to document decision.

 

Idea Selection

  • Team will down select to 1 design to be engineered.
  • Team members identify critical sub-systems and hold brainstorming sessions on such sub-systems.
  • See the trade study page for more for details

 

Additional Resources

CAD & CAM

CAD or Computer Aided Design is one of the most critical things your team can do to become more successful. CAD enables your team to be more efficient and effective with the limited time and financial resources of FRC. CAD at its roots does two things; captures design intent and communicates design intent, thus the more you CAD the more you communicate. Conceptual CAD should be completed within 5 days of kickoff. Prototype CAD should be completed within 7 days of kickoff. Final CAD should be completed within 10 days of kickoff. This rigorous schedule pushes teams to do most of their thinking up front so that they leave as little of their robot design up to chance. When doing CAD teams should think about the following at the following stages;

Conceptual CAD

  • What are the goals / requirements
    • Repairability
    • Ease of assembly
    • Game functions that need to be completed by the robot
    • Game functions that we want to be completed by the robot
    • Game functions that would be nice if the robot could complete
    • Rules
  • Game pieces are modeled and interacted with
  • Field is modeled and interacted with
  • Major structural components are modeled
  • Keep modeling time to under 2 hours per concept

2015 concept1concept 2 image 3

Prototype CAD

  • What are the teams limitations
    • Time
    • Cost
    • Detail part fabrication capability of the team’s students
    • Tools available to the team for fabrication
  • What are the ranges of motion of your mechanisms
  • What are the major and minor assemblies
  • Where will the electronics go
    • Use cubes to represent
  • Where will the pneumatics go
    • Use cubes to represent
  • What is the Master axis system for the robot
  • What are the materials you know you are going to need and can order before detail design is finished

Concept 3 image 4Concept 3 image 4Concept 3 image 1

Final CAD

  • What are the Free Body Diagrams (FBD) for your robot
  • What are the parts you are going to use for every aspect of the robot
    • Who is the supplier
    • Are the parts legal and available
    • How is every part going to be fabricated or sourced
    • What are the materials
  • What is the assembly order for the robot
    • Where are the payoffs
  • What fasteners are used at every joint
  • What gears or sprockets will be used for every mechanism
  • What mechanical transfer mediums are being used
    • What are the belt sizes
    • What are the number of chain links
    • How will they be tensioned
  • Does the math of your mechanisms work with the parts selected
  • What is the weight of the robot
  • Where is the Center of Gravity (CG)
  • Where will every electronic component go
    • Is the batter easily removable
    • Where will the wires go
    • Are the status light easily view able
  • Is the drive system easily repairable
  • Are major mechanisms easily repairable
  • Where will every pneumatic components go
    • Is the full range of motion possible
    • Do you need mechanical stops
  • Do we violate any rules
  • Does it meet all of the teams need level requirements
  • All of the assemblies and detail parts are labeled

Team1389-2015_field-12 Team1389-2015_electrical-1 Team1389-2015_field-13

 

Teams have a large variety of CAD software available to them, for free through FIRST; Autodesk and Solid works are the two most popular. Please see FIRST’s CAD webpage for the details on how to download the software for free. Once you have the software you will need to learn how to use it. Check out these tutorials to learn the basics.

 

Once you know the basics you are ready to learn about how to model detail parts and simple assemblies. But FRC robots can be made out of more than 200 parts and 300 fasteners. When modeling at this scale we recommend that you learn some more of the advanced ways of thinking about CAD;

  • Model based definition
    • This is thinking in terms of models as opposed to drawings.
  • Relational Design
    • This is thinking in terms of how the final assembly, relates to major assemblies, which relate to minor assemblies and how they all relate to detail parts, multi use assemblies and multi use parts
  • Parametric design
    • This is thinking in terms of CAD efficiency
  • Be strategic and minimize what you have to model
    • This is thinking in terms of reuse and reduction of total CAD effort
      • adTown CAD Library – FRC Team 1323, MadTown Robotics
      • 3D Content Central – Host an enormous variety of free CAD models including all components of the FIRST Kit of Parts
      • Autodesk FIRSTbase – Where all Autodesk submissions are made, voted on, and archived. FIRST teams can also download Professional licenses of Autodesk software for free here once registered
  • Product Data Management (PDM)
    • This is how you store CAD data, versions and metadata
    • We use GrabCAD
  • Design for Manufacturability (DFMA)
    • This is thinking in terms of tolerances, tooling, assembly order and payoffs
    • GD&T or FT&A are big parts of DFMA

 

After you finish you robot you will need to purchase or fabricate all of the items on your Bill of Materials (BOM). You may have planned to fabricate several of the parts by hand, making parts by hand is defiantly one way to go, but you need to understand the limitations of this fabrication method often include large tolerance issues for many FRC teams. Tolerances issues translate into assembly slop that could result in misalignment of major structural components or significant amounts of inconsistency when performing tasks. So instead we recommend using parts that are made using Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) techniques. There are many CAM options available to teams;

  • CNC routing
  • CNC lathe
  • CNC laser
  • CNC welding
  • CNC water jet
  • 3D prining

 

CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control and 3D printing is a euphemism for additive manufacturing techniques. Both of these types of machines allow teams to focus on making the data that the CNC machine will need to turn raw materials into the parts that you designed. For many machines the team will need to post process the CAD data to make the commands for specific machine they are going to use to fabricate the part. Each CNC or 3D vendor will identify what the post processor software the team will need to use. For CNC routers for example teams will need to identify the x,y,z, zero point, bit size, rpm, cutting paths etc.. so that the part is fabricated correctly once it is placed in the machine. The same type of forethought is needed for 3D printers, where will the machine start to print, will it print just the exterior or fill in in the interior, does it need supports to avoid deformation during printing, etc…

 

The Team is just starting its grab cad and is making all of our CAD available here

There are numerous other teams who also make their CAD available

Sprockets, Chains, Pulleys, Belts & Gears

Motors, springs and pneumatics are just of few examples of the many ways to generate mechanical energy on an FRC robot. However, in most instances where you generate the mechanical energy is not where you want to use it, so lets discus some of the ways to transfer and change mechanical energy from what is produced at the source to what / where it is needed on the robot.

In most instances the mechanical energy produced is rotational in nature, this means it will have an RPM and a torque associated with it. Here are some videos that will teach what these two terms are.


Now that you understand RPM and torque we can get down to transforming and transferring rotational mechanical energy. Sprockets, Gears and Hubs can all be attached directly to the source of the energy in a variety of ways. Once attached they are each used in conjunction with a specific transfer medium.

  • Sprockets transfer energy to chain
    300px-ChainAndSprocketSketch
  • Pulleys transfer energy to belts
    gr_pulley_system
  • Gears transfer energy to other gears
    geardrive-733x604

 

Since these are all mechanical transfer mediums there are losses due to friction that vary between 5% and 40% based on the system you have selected, the tolerances of the detail parts and the assembly tolerances. Here is great video that walks you through these transfer mechanisms in a little more detail;

Here are some more details on these systems

 

Be The Change We Want To See

Here is a recent interview the Founder of FIRST robotics did that does a great job of underscoring why we need to be the change we want to see.  “You get the best of what you celebrate” Dean says, and in this county he points out that “very few kids have role models outside of the NFL, NBA and Hollywood.”  Dean then goes on to share the results of his recent trip to Asia where the Chinese have decided to put FIRST teams in every one of their schools.

Think about what that will do to the US’s global tech leadership when a few million FIRST graduates per year are moving into Chinese business and finding a way to solve the worlds problems.

What is the State of Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (STEM) in the United States?
Current Statistics on Education and the Workforce

U.S. Education and STEM:

  • The U.S. is ranked 20th out of 30 in high school graduation rates among industrialized nations.[1]
  • Standardized test scores from 30 nations rank 14-year-olds in the U.S. 25th in math and 21st in science.[2]
  • Only 1 in 17 children from lower income families (earning less than $35,000 a year) earn a bachelor’s degree by the age of 24.[3]
  • Compared to their U.S. counterparts, undergraduate students in other countries select natural science and engineering (NS&E) as their primary field of study at higher rates: 25% of undergraduates in the European Union, 47% in China, and 38% in South Korea chose an NS&E major, compared to only 16% of U.S. undergraduates.[4]
  • While the U.S. is the largest contributor of new doctorates in STEM,[5] approximately 33% of all doctoral students in STEM attending U.S. universities are foreign students on temporary visas, and 57% of U.S. postdoctoral fellows in STEM fields hold temporary visas.[6]
  • Results from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test found that the U.S. performed below average in mathematics in 2012 and is ranked 26th among the 34 OECD countries. U.S. students performed weakly in formulating real world problems into mathematics, establishing mathematical models, interpreting real world aspects of a problem, reasoning in geometric context and in mathematical literacy.[7]
  • In December 2011, the National Governors Association issued a report identifying two goals of a national STEM education agenda: (1) to expand the number of students prepared to enter postsecondary education in STEM, and (2) to increase the proficiency of all students in basic STEM knowledge.[8]

Summary: The U.S. is losing ground to other nations in providing STEM education for our youth. Generally, U.S. students have lower scores in math and science literacy and are less likely to pursue college degrees and careers in STEM than their international counterparts.

STEM data 4 STEM data 2 STEM data 1 STEM data 3 STEM data 5

The U.S. STEM Workforce:

  • STEM occupations are projected to grow by 17% from 2008-2018; non-STEM occupations are expected to grow by 9.8% during that same period in the U.S. according to the U.S. Dept. of Commerce.[9]
  • By 2018, 92% of traditional STEM jobs will require some post-secondary education and training. 65% will require at least a bachelor’s degree or more.[10]
  • 17% of all STEM workers in the U.S. are foreign born (compared to 12% of all workers in the U.S. labor market as a whole.)[11]
  • “The U.S. defense and homeland security industries face challenges in filling some of the best and most critical technical jobs in our country because the U.S. is not producing enough graduates trained in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics who qualify for security clearances.”[12

Summary: Job growth is expected to continue through 2018 in the STEM fields. STEM jobs will require some knowledge of STEM concepts with the majority of STEM jobs requiring a bachelor’s degree or more in STEM.

 STEM data 7 STEM data 8 STEM data 9 STEM data 10 STEM data 11STEM data 6

 

So what do we do?

 

If we want to compete we will need create more STEM graduates.  If we want more kids to go into STEM we need to change what people celebrate, and give them the same opportunities to pursue their dreams that a basketball court gives an athlete.

  • If we want people to celebrate STEM the same way we celebrate sports and entertainment we need to change our culture.  Since this is no easy feat, we recommend starting small and local.  For example, after the state of Michigan decided to make robotics a state sports they saw an increase of 80 teams in a single year. Here is a great article from 2014 that talks about the impact the change had on the state.
  • If we want people to have the opportunity to pursue their STEM dreams they need to have the community resources available. Community machine shops, chemistry labs, biology labs, robotics practice spaces, etc.. are a few ways that local leaders could make STEM more accessible to all of their constituents.

What Inspires Students to Pursue College Majors in STEM?
A Brief Summary of Scholarly Research

Research has shown that by the time children reach fourth grade, a third of all students have lost interest in science, and by eighth grade nearly 50% of students have deemed science and technology as irrelevant to their future career
plans. [1] To effectively cultivate interest and ability in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) related disciplines, interventions must occur early in a student’s career and continue throughout high school.[2]

Researchers have found a number of factors that are important to engaging and maintaining student interest in STEM. Among these are:

  • Using teaching strategies that have hands-on activities, are relevant to students, and mirror real-life problems increases interest in STEM.[3],[4] Making science “personal, local and relevant” leads to greater levels of interest in science.[5] Hands-on activities, relevant topics and cooperative learning strategies increase student engagement and interest in learning.[6],[7]
  • Research has shown that interest in careers, including those in STEM, starts in middle school.[8] Discussion about STEM careers in middle school is likely to increase student interest in STEM.[9]
  • Mentors who model what professionals do increase student interest in the STEM fields.[10],[11] The likelihood of pursuing a STEM degree increases when combining hands-on science experiences with mentorship, particularly for girls.[12],[13],[14]
  • Researchers have found that student intention to major in STEM is a stronger predictor of successful earning of STEM degrees than GPA or SAT scores.[15],[16],[17]
  • Cooperative learning (learning in groups) provides emotional bonding that can result in greater commitment to group goals; feelings of responsibility; willingness to take on difficult tasks; increased motivation, satisfaction and morale; willingness to listen to group members; and productivity.[18] Group learning and team work provide a richer learning experience.

FIRST programs use a combination of strategies that research has demonstrated lead to increased interest in STEM and knowledge about STEM concepts, and result in more students expressing a desire to attend college and have a STEM career. FIRST programs provide a fun and engaging challenge that has a connection to real-life issues, utilizes hands-on learning experiences where students, working on teams, experiment and actively learn while doing, and exposes students to careers through mentorship.

 

Does FIRST® Make a Difference?
FIRST and STEM Outcomes

The following summary highlights STEM outcomes from recent external evaluations conducted on FIRST programs
by Brandeis University:
A retrospective study with FIRST® Robotics Competition (FRC) Alumni (2005) compared to students from a national dataset found that FRC Alumni were:

  • significantly more likely to attend college on a full-time basis (88% vs. 53%), more likely to major in a science or engineering field (55% vs. 28%), and more than three times as likely to major specifically in engineering (41% vs. 13%) than a comparison of students from a national dataset
  • roughly 10 times as likely to have had an apprenticeship, internship, or co-op job in their freshman year (27% vs. 2.7%)
  • significantly more likely to expect to achieve a postgraduate degree, i.e., master’s degree or higher (77% vs. 69%)
  • more likely to expect to pursue a science or technology career (45% vs. 20%) or a career in engineering (31% vs 8%)

Findings from an impact evaluation on FIRST® LEGO® League (FLL) (2013) include:

  • 89% of FLL participants have an interest in learning more about science and technology as a result of participating in FLL
  • 88% are more interested in going to college as a result of participating in FLL
  • 80% of those in the study are more interested in having a job that uses science and technology
  • Over 90% of participants in the study increased skills in teamwork, communication, time management, conflict resolution, and problem solving as a result of participating on an FLL team

Findings from a recent evaluation of FIRST® Tech Challenge (FTC) and FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC) (2011) include:

  • The large majority of FTC and FRC participants have an interest in learning more about science and technology as a result of their participation on a FIRST team (95% of FTC and 97% of FRC)
  • 87% of FTC participants and 91% of FRC participants are more interested in going to college as a result of being on their FIRST team
  • 89% of FTC and 90% of FRC participants are more interested in having a career that uses science and technology
  • The large majority of both FTC and FRC team members (over 90%) indicate an increase in teamwork skills, problem solving, time management, and communication skills as a result of their experience on their FIRST team

Across programs, the vast majority of coaches and students report a strong, positive impact on student knowledge, interests, attitudes, and skills. Furthermore, after completing a FIRST program, the majority of students were more interested in pursuing STEM-related careers.

FIRST® Robotics Competition (FRC) Alumni (2005), compared to students from a national dataset.

STEM data 16 STEM data 15 STEM data 14 STEM data 13 STEM data 12

Evaluation of FIRST® LEGO® League (FLL)

STEM data 17

Evaluation of FIRST® Tech Challenge (FTC ) and FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC )

STEM data 21 STEM data 20 STEM data 19 STEM data 18

 

Please watch and share the above video.

And if you are as motivated as we are, help us change Montgomery County and make it the first county in Maryland to declare robotics a sport and be the change it wants to see!!!

References

What is the State of Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (STEM) in the United States?
Current Statistics on Education and the Workforce

[1] National Science Board (May, 2010). Preparing the Next Generation of STEM Innovators: Identifying and Developing Our Nation’s Human Capital. National Science Foundation. Available at http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/publications/2010/nsb1033.pdf.
[2] See supra note 1.
[3] National Academy of Science (2010). Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Revisited: Rapidly Approaching Category 5. Report prepared for the Presidents of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and Institute of Medicine. Available at http://download.nap.edu/cart/download.cgi?&record_id=12999 (free subscription required).
[4] See supra note 1.
[5] Thomasian, J. (Dec. 2011). Building a Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education Agenda. National Governor’s Association. Available at http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/1112STEMGUIDE.PDF.
[6] See supra note 1.
[7] OECD (2013), Lessons from PISA 2012 for the United States, Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education, OECD Publishing. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264207585-en.
[8] See supra note 3.
[9] U.S. Department of Commerce (July, 2011). STEM: Good Jobs Now and For the future. ESA Issue Brief #03-11. Available at http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED522129.pdf.
[10] Carnevale, Ap., Smith, N., Melton, M. (October, 2011). STEM. Washington DC: Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce. Available at https://georgetown.app.box.com/s/cyrrqbjyirjy64uw91f6.
[11] See supra note 10.
[12] Farrell, Lawrence P. Jr., (Ret), President & CEO, National Defense Industrial Association, Available at www.ndia.org/divisions/divisions/STEM.

What Inspires Students to Pursue College Majors in STEM?
A Brief Summary of Scholarly Research

[1] Stephens, R. Testimony to the House Science and Technology Committee, Subcommittee on Research and Science Education. February 4, 2010. Available at http://science.house.gov/sites/republicans.science.house.gov/files/documents/hearings/020410_Stephens.pdf.
[2] Cooper M. (2009). Closing the STEM Gap. Available at http://www.forbes.com/2009/12/21/college-stem-education-leadershp.com.
[3] Blumenfeld, P.C, Kempler, T.M., & Krajcik, J.S. (2006). Motivation and Cognitive Engagement in Learning Environments. In R.K. Sawyer (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (at 475-488). NY: Cambridge University Press.
[4] Maltese, A.V. & Tai, R.H. (2011). Pipeline Persistence: Examining the Association of Educational Experiences with Earned Degrees in STEM Among U.S. Students. Science Education95: at 877-907.
[5] Maltese & Tai, (2011) at 900.
[6] Myers, R.E., & Fouts, J.T. (1992). A Cluster Analysis of High School Science Classroom Environments and Attitude Toward Science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29 (9), at 929-937.
[7] Piburn, M.D., & Baker, D.R. (1993). If I Were the Teacher: Qualitative Study of Attitude Toward Science. Science Education, 77(4), at 393-406.
[8] Maltese, A., Tai, R. (2010). Eyeballs in the fridge: Sources of Early Interest in Science. International Journal of Science Education, 32 (5), at 669-685.
[9] Maltese & Tai (2011).
[10] Dee, T.S. (2007). Teachers and the Gender Gaps in Student Achievement. Journal of Human Resources, 42 (3), at 528-554.
[11] Packard, BWL, Nguyen, D. (2003). Science Career-Related Possible Selves of Adolescent Girls: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Career Development, 29 (4), at 251-263. Available at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~bpackard/website/papers/LongGirlsSTEM.pdf.
[12] Amelink, C. T. (no date). Overview: Mentoring and Women in Engineering. Available at http://www.engr.psu.edu/awe/misc/ARPs/ARP_Mentoring_overview120408.pdf.
[13] McLaughlin, R. (2005). Girls in Science. Science Scope, 28(7), at 14-15.
[14] McCrea, B. (2011). Making Science Appeal to Girls. Principal Leadership, 11(8), at 28-32. Available at http://www.nassp.org/Content/158/-apr11_mccrea.pdf.
[15] Bonous-Harnmarth, M. (2000). Pathways to Success: Affirming Opportunities for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Majors. Journal of Negro Education, 69 (1/2), at 92-111.
[16] Tai, R.H., Lui, C., Maltese, A., Fan, X. (2006). Planning Early for Careers in Science. Science, 312 (May), at 1143-1144.
[17] Maltese, A.V. & Tai, R.H. (2011). Pipeline Persistence: Examining the Association of Educational Experiences with Earned Degrees in STEM Among U.S. Students. Science Education 95: at 877-907.
[18] Munro, S., O’Brien, M.U., & Payton, J.W. (2006). Common Ground: Teaching Kids the Benefits of Working Together. Available at http://www.edutopia.org/common-ground.

Does FIRST® Make a Difference?
FIRST and STEM Outcomes

[1] National Science Board (May, 2010). Preparing the Next Generation of STEM Innovators: Identifying and Developing Our Nation’s Human Capital. National Science Foundation. Available at http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/publications/2010/nsb1033.pdf.
[2] See supra note 1.
[3] National Academy of Science (2010). Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Revisited: Rapidly Approaching Category 5. Report prepared for the Presidents of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and Institute of Medicine. Available at http://download.nap.edu/cart/download.cgi?&record_id=12999 (free subscription required).
[4] See supra note 1.
[5] Thomasian, J. (Dec. 2011). Building a Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education Agenda. National Governor’s Association. Available at http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/1112STEMGUIDE.PDF.
[6] See supra note 1.
[7] See supra note 3 at 53.
[8] See supra note 3.
[9] US Department of Commerce (July, 2011). STEM: Good Jobs Now and For the future. ESA Issue Brief #03-11. Available at http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED522129.pdf.
[10] Carnevale, Ap., Smith, N., Melton, M. (October, 2011). STEM. Washington DC: Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce. Available at https://georgetown.app.box.com/s/cyrrqbjyirjy64uw91f6.
[11] See supra note 10.
[12] Farrell, Lawrence P. Jr., (Ret), President & CEO, National Defense Industrial Association, Available at www.ndia.org/divisions/divisions/STEM.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bechtel FRC Programming Workshop

Bechtel FRC Programming Workshop: Will be held on November 14th at the Reston Bechtel office at 12011 Sunset Hills Rd #110, Reston, VA, 20190 from 8:30 AM until 3 PM.

Topics include general programming practices, RobotBuilder software and demonstrations, sensor integration, advanced programming techniques, focus on JAVA with a Labview handout.

The workshop is free but registration is required with a limit of 50 people (only 4 per team) – http://firstchesapeake.us7.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=42cd00ad8fc5717517eb5f7f6&id=052bce6bfc&e=fdbd5aaeea

Team 1389’s registration to attend is open until November 4th. If you have not confirmed your attendance with team 1389 by November 4th you will not be allowed to attend the event. If you have any questions, please email admin@team1389.com.

Please check the Calendar for up coming meetings and events.

Have you filled in your paper work yet??? If you haven’ you will not be able to attend meetings or events after the 10th of October till you do.

BAA Education Day

BAA Education day:   Mark your calendars now for the 2015 BAA Education Day, Saturday 24 October 2015, 8:30-4:00,  at the Kossiakoff Center at Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, Laurel Maryland.As always, this promises to be a jam-packed day of useful seminars to help get your FRC team ready for another season.

For a $5 fee (to cover lunch costs), you can’t get a better bargain anywhere! There will be seminars for mentors, new and returning students, parents, volunteers, anyone who is interested in FIRST Robotics.Registration is open until 19 October : http://firstchesapeake.us7.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=42cd00ad8fc5717517eb5f7f6&id=31bf2dedda&e=fdbd5aaeea
For more information, as well as the schedule of seminars, check out the BAA web site: FIRST BAA – Events (http://firstchesapeake.us7.list-manage.com/track/click?u=42cd00ad8fc5717517eb5f7f6&id=3b7e550f69&e=fdbd5aaeea)

Team 1389’s registration to attend is open until October 21st.  If you have not confirmed your attendance with team 1389 by October 21st you will need to fin your own way to and from the event. If you have any questions, please email admin@team1389.com.

Please check the Calendar for up coming meetings and events.

Have you filled in your paper work yet???

If you haven’ you will not be able to attend meetings or events after the 10th of October till you do.